Levelling of farm lands and removing of stagnant water. Water for Chong Hok Tong. Wine, calesa fare and gift for compadre.
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Decorative painting by Su Feng. Flower pots and plants for the garden. Planting of trees around the perimeter. Erection of further inscribed tablets and addition of furniture. Chinese [calendar] Fifth year of Guangxu, year yimao , third extra month, Sixth day. Spanish [calendar] 27 April Stone erected by the board of administrators. For the complete list of names, see Appendix 2. The Chinese upon completion of the New cemetery set strict rules and regulations so that order and procedures followed to avoid chaos. Those who violate the rule will be denounced by the public.
The guard or administrator of the cemetery should always listen to the capitan and discuss resolutions among trustees. He must not transact with outsiders. The capitan and trustees should not use their position or authority to make illicit transfers [of graves] lest they be denounced by the public.
As for the capitan , two trustees, and two officials are in charge of the treasury, their parents, brothers, wife, parents-in-law, children, and grandchildren are also allowed to be buried at land of the Hall of Merits. For those who donate pesos and above, parents, wife, children, and grandchildren can be buried there too.
The burial land belonging to the Hall of Merits can be used by trustees, past and present capitans , two old treasurers, and those who donated pesos and above; but for their daughters, both husband and wife can be buried there if they are documented as Chinese or Chinese mestizo. The process of establishing the new cemetery was very complicated. In gratitude, his mother, himself, his brother, wife, children, and grandchildren will be allowed burial here. The cemetery guard cannot sell land belonging to the Hall of Merits or the public land and break rules by allowing illegal constructions indiscriminately.
If discovered to be receiving bribes, he will be dismissed. If carried by humans, only 1 peso. No one can break this rule.
If one is found to charge extra, he will be dismissed. The new cemetery guard should guard and patrol the trees and the vicinity within the stone walls. If there are natives who cut trees and change the stone boundaries; or cows or horses that have been allowed to enter the grounds trampling the tombs, the matter should be reported to the authorities.
If the guard is found lazy and does not do his job to rove around the cemetery, he should be dismissed.
If a dead body is found abandoned by the roadside or if the hospital announces an unclaimed deceased body, the cemetery guard must immediately do the burial. If the family of the deceased needs more, the guard should just provide. No need to charge more money so no quarrel will ensue. If the family members prepare or bring the materials themselves, they should be allowed to do so.
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But if filial sons and grandsons want their parents to be buried there, we must understand their sentiments and burial can be allowed if they donate pesos per grave. Cows and horses are not allowed to be tied to the fence. The guard is responsible for the furniture and devices inside the temple and he shall be held accountable for any loss. The above rules were discussed before they were adopted and a stele erected in the hope that the Chinese obey them forever. Hence, those who use connections to avoid obeying or change the rules will be punished by heaven. Stele erected by the board of trustees whose names are:.
Camacho ed. Instead, it was a place where only a limited number of Chinese was authorized to work and live in. Email communication 11 February The case of a person dying and temporarily buried while awaiting being shipped back to China is another question that needs to be looked into. Where were the bodies temporarily placed? Pura Santillan-Castrence. Manila: Historical Institute, Orig. Chinben See , in Teresita Ang See ed. Reis Thomaz who kindly transcribed and ascertained the inscriptions in Spanish.
Harper, Sta. Cruz Parish Pastoral Council, , pp. XXIV, No. Also Aristotle C. El cementerio, escenario de tensiones entre el poder colonial y el clero finales del s. A Chinese contractor built the outer portion of the cemetery for the sum of 19, pesos. After the funeral ceremonies and interment in one of these spaces the entrance is bricked up and a plate fixed outside stating the name and age of the lonely occupant. He is thus left undisturbed for a period of years, at the expiration of which time the bones of the deceased are either buried in one of the churches or else taken from the coffin and thrown upon a bone pile in the rear of the cemetery.
Mallat, The Philippines , pp. As a sign of mourning, during the ceremony they wear a black silk band around the neck. In China mourning is in white…. Zaragoza, Old Manila , p. James, quoting Bantug, writes that the earliest outbreak of cholera in the Philippines dates back to Other cemeteries were subsequently built in a number of prominent towns.
Why this was so could not be ascertained in the absence of an extant copy of the decree. Philippine-Chinese Charitable Association 90th Anniversary , p. Today, the place is deserted and many tombs are neglected or deteriorating. However, it should be noted that the Paco Cemetery was also built specifically for this purpose. Was there a shift in colonial policy that designated the Chinese cemetery as the burial site for the deceased who died from communicable diseases?
See Zaragoza, Old Manila , p. And if so, why? Our thanks to Claudine Salmon for assisting in the translation of these steles.
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See Reel These were microfilmed from the National Archives of the Philippines, and in each index can be found the name of the deceased; the year the person died; place and date of death; and record locator, i. The department also stipulated that the government should fix the amount that doctors could charge for such service. Soon knee-deep water has backed up behind the ramshackle dams. By furnishing a safe, attractive pond and a semi-stable base of operations, these beaver dam analogues will, with luck, convince the next relocated colony to stick around, get to work, and reproduce.
Among the volunteers at the beaver dam analogue installation is Erik White, wildlife manager with the Cowlitz Tribe. Inspired by the Tulalip, he and the Cowlitz Tribe have launched a beaver relocation project of their own, and plan to begin moving the animals to the Gifford Pinchot National Forest in the spring of More beavers on more Washington rivers would mean more salmon in Puget Sound, he figured. The stubborn lawmaker who had opposed moving beavers west of the Cascades had retired, and a new Beaver Bill, this one permitting relocations on both sides of the mountains, sailed through.
Starting in , non-tribal groups, like environmental nonprofits, will be able to relocate the animals west of the Cascades, too. The doors to the re-beavering have been flung open. Williams was pleased by the outcome, but not surprised. I arrive in time to catch Schultz and Tegt unloading four wire cages, which between them hold seven hulking beavers. Fourteen beady eyes rove over their captors.
We lug the crates down to a marshy tributary. A fork in the stream has created a natural impoundment, offering a prime release site and obviating the need for any beaver dam analogues.
At the base of an alder copse, the crew has built a slapdash lodge, temporary barracks that will keep the beavers safe from bears and cougars until they can build a permanent home. The crew lifts each cage to the lodge entrance, opens the door, and watches the beavers trundle into the dark interior. Although a previous relocation here failed, Alves and Bailey hope the threat of oncoming winter will motivate this batch to immediately start building.
But beaver work can be as frustrating as it is rewarding. No matter how thoughtfully you choose release locations, no matter how many beaver dam analogues you install, beavers are wont to do what beavers are wont to do. For all the science that guides it, beaver relocation entails, on some level, an act of faith.
Dig a wetland with a backhoe, and you can be reasonably certain it will still exist in five years. Outsource the job to beavers, and they might succeed beyond your wildest expectations—or, as at Mahoney, permit your pond to lapse into a meadow. It is thus with considerable trepidation that we wait before the makeshift lodge to see how its new inhabitants react.
For a time, all is quiet; then a chorus of grunts and gurgles, eerily akin to the cries of a human infant, rises from the hut. We hear the staccato rasp of incisors on wood. Through gaps in the slats we catch a flash of fur, a glittering eye. Abruptly a snout, culminating in a quivering nose, pokes from the logs, followed by a plump torso and a leathery tail.
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