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After an initial period of confusion, a group of his most prominent companions gathered and elected Abu Bakr , Muhammad's close friend and father-in-law, as the first Caliph. Sunnis believe that the position of Caliph may be democratically chosen, but after the first four Rightly Guided Caliphs the position turned into a hereditary dynastic rule.

There has not been another widely recognized Caliph since the fall of the Ottoman Empire in Shia Islam is the second largest denomination of Islam. Shia Muslims believe that, similar to the appointment of prophets, Imams after Muhammad are also chosen by God. According to Shias, Ali was chosen by Allah and thus appointed by Muhammad to be the direct successor and leader of the Muslim community. They regard him as the first Shia Imam , which continued as a hereditary position through Fatimah and Ali's descendants.

The ‘schism’ controversy is just one of the big issues on the Pope’s plate

Sufism is a mystical - ascetic form of Islam practised by both Shia and Sunni Muslims. Some Sufi followers consider themselves Sunni or Shia, while others consider themselves as just Sufi or Sufi-influenced. By focusing on the more spiritual aspects of religion, Sufis strive to obtain direct experience of God by making use of "intuitive and emotional faculties" that one must be trained to use.

Kharijite lit. While there are few remaining Kharijite or Kharijite-related groups, the term is sometimes used to denote Muslims who refuse to compromise with those with whom they disagree. The first schism in Jainism happened around the fourth century BCE, leading to rise of two major sects, Digambara and Svetambara , which were later subdivided in further sub-sects. Throughout Jewish history , Judaism survived many schisms, including the emergence of Christianity. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Schism disambiguation. This section does not cite any sources.

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Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. August Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Schools of Buddhism. See also: Christian denomination and Ecclesiastical separatism. Main article: Jain schools and branches. Main article: Jewish schisms. January Learn how and when to remove this template message.

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See also: Jewish views of religious pluralism , Relationships between Jewish religious movements , Jewish principles of faith , and Heresy in Judaism. This article may contain indiscriminate , excessive , or irrelevant examples. Please improve the article by adding more descriptive text and removing less pertinent examples.

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See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for further suggestions. April Main article: List of schisms in Christianity. However, in the 16th century the word was respelled with an initial sch in order to conform to its Latin and Greek forms. Long regarded as incorrect, it became so common in both British and American English that it gained acceptability as a standard variant. Evidence indicates, however, that it is now the preferred pronunciation, at least in American English.

Cambridge University Press. In Herbermann, Charles ed. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.

Washington Times. Retrieved Early Christian Creeds Longmans pp. New York: Columbia University Press. The Armenian Apostolic Church formally became autocephalous—i. Major religious groups and denominations 1. Zoroastrianism Yazidis Ossetian. Sindoism Cheondoism Jeungsanism. Shinto Tenrikyo Ryukyuan.

Ahom Hmongism Mo Satsana Phi. Note: 1 The main source: Eliade, Mircea , ed. The Encyclopedia of Religion. New York: MacMillan.

Pope Francis on plane: ‘I am not afraid of schisms. I pray they do not happen.’ | America Magazine

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By continuing, you agree to our Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Please set a username for yourself. People will see it as Author Name with your public flash cards. The definition of a schism is a split of a group into different sections as a result of a difference in beliefs.

YourDictionary definition and usage example. Link to this page. MLA Style "Schism. In YourDictionary. All rights reserved. A formal breach of union within a religious body, especially a Christian church. Noun plural schisms A split or separation within a group or organization, typically caused by discord. The schism between Sunnis and Shias happened quite early in Islamic history.

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